Teaching Quality Health and Physical Education

by Dean Dudley, Amanda Telford, Claire | This practical new text will help pre- and in-service teachers to develop and implement quality health and physical education experiences in primary schools.

Teaching Quality Health and Physical Education
Ⓒ 2018ISBN 9780170387019Edition 1 344 Pages
AU / NZ
Published: 2017 by Cengage Learning Australia
Author/s: Dean Dudley / Charles Sturt University, Bathurst
Amanda Telford / RMIT University
Claire Stonehouse / Deakin University
Louisa Peralta / University of Western Sydney
Matthew Winslade / Charles Sturt University

 

Taught well, Health and Physical Education can provide purposeful, stimulating and challenging learning experiences. It can help children to develop sophisticated understanding, skill and capabilities through their bodies and to see greater meaning in not only what they are learning but also their wider lives; and it can enrich all other aspects of the curriculum.
This practical new text will help pre- and in-service teachers to develop and implement quality health and physical education experiences in primary schools. It introduces the general principles of teaching and learning in Health and Physical Education and explains why this learning area is an important part of the Australian Curriculum. Chapters then discuss considerations and practical implications for teaching both health and physical education using a strengths-based approach.
Packed with evidence-based and research-informed content, this valuable text also includes numerous examples and activities that help you bridge the gap from theory to real-world practice. Above all, it will give educators the confidence to teach primary health and physical education so that every child benefits.

 

Contents

Part 1: Introduction to the area
1. Introducing Health and Physical Education
2. Understanding quality Health and Physical Education
3. Overview of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education
4. Authentic learning and assessment in primary Health and Physical Education.
Part 2: Understanding and teaching about personal, social and community health
5. Pedagogies and issues in teaching for health
6. Exploring identity, help-seeking behaviour and decision making
7. Communicating for healthy relationships and wellbeing
8. Whole-school approaches to promoting health.
Part 3: Understanding and teaching about movement and physical activity
9. Planning for developmentally appropriate learning
10. Moving for purpose: skills, knowledge and values
11. Moving for life: experience and expression.

 

About the author (2017)

Dr Dean Dudley is a former Health and Physical Education Head Teacher and Director of Sport and now works as a physical education academic at Macquarie University. He is Senior Lecturer and Researcher of Health and Physical Education at Macquarie University, as well as Vice President (Oceania) of the International Federation of Physical Education and Chief Examiner (Personal Development, Health, and Physical Education) for the NSW Board of Studies and Teacher Education Standards. Dean was Expert Consultant on the Quality Physical Education Guidelines for Policymakers published by UNESCO in 2015. His research is focused on the assessment and reporting of physical education and the development of observed learning outcomes pertaining to physical literacy.

Amanda Telford is Associate in the School of Education at RMIT University. In addition to experience as an academic and as a health and physical education teacher, Amanda has experience as a company director of an organisation consisting of a network of over five thousand health and physical educators. She has been an advisor for state and federal governments in the area of Health and Physical Education and was involved in the development of the 2004 National Physical Activity Guidelines for children and young people. Her research focuses on the influence of family, community and school environments on youth physical activity behaviour.Claire Stonehouse lectures at Deakin University in Health Education, Student Wellbeing and Sexuality Education in both primary and secondary pre-service education. Claire has worked in many sectors of the community, and has experience writing curricula and educating young people. Her areas of interest include: sexuality education; the educational impact that parents have on their children; and opening up conversations about mental health.

Louisa Peralta is Senior Lecturer of Health and Physical Education in the Faculty of Education and Social Work at the University of Sydney. As an academic, Louisa teaches in the areas of primary and secondary Health and Physical Education and professional practice studies. Her teaching, research and publications focus on school-based programs for improving students’ physical activity levels and motivation, improving adolescent health literacy through whole school approaches, and designing and delivering professional learning experiences for preservice and inservice Health and Physical Education teachers.

Matthew Winslade is Associate Head of the School of Teacher Education and Course Director for Health and Physical Education at Charles Sturt University. Prior to moving into the tertiary sector he was both a Head Teacher in the state system and a Director of Sport in the Association of Independent Schools. His current research activities include evaluating school- and university-based health and physical activity programs, and the development of intercultural competency in pre-service teachers. Matt currently divides his time between Australia and Samoa, working closely with community groups and sporting organisations at both school and university level.



Preparing yourself for Careers of the Future

You don’t have to be at the top of your class to prepare yourself for careers of the future. However, you have to be well rounded in most disciplines and be dedicated to your studies and open to suggestions from your teacher or your professor. Today’s school administrators also need to rework their curriculum to include both technical and soft skills that will challenge and enable students to succeed in the future world of automation.

It doesn’t matter what your current career path is; you use skills in arts, science, technology, engineering, or math in one form or another every day. More knowledge in these areas of studies will no doubt help you in the careers of the future. And believe me, no one knows what careers of the future holds. What we do know is that as a High School student or College student, it’s imperative you force yourself to be proficient in arts, math, science, and technology. In the future world of automation, it will be very hard (but not impossible) to get by without some knowledge of arts, math, science, and technology.

Academics

You can start preparing yourself for careers of the future through academic courses. Here are some of the core courses to get you started while you’re still in high school or college.

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Statistics
  • Computational Biology
  • Molecular Biology as a Computational Science
  • Geography
  • Immunology
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Programming
  • Web Programming
  • Data Programming
  • Computer Science Principles
  • Computer Assisted Art
  • Research Methods
  • Introduction to Algorithms
  • Identities: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Anthropology
  • Economics
  • Probabilistic Robotics
  • Probability and Mathematical Statistics
  • Mathematical Reasoning
  • Electronics
  • Environmental Science
  • Political science
  • Technical writing
  • Creative writing

Work Experience & Hobbies
Other ways to prepare yourself for careers of the future is through work experience and engaging is various hobbies. Some of these activities include but not limited to:

  • Fundraising event or other project involving budgeting and math skills.
  • Participate in a lobbying and census project to gain experience conducting interviews, analyzing data, and writing report of the project.
  • Volunteer at a math or science camp or after-school program.
  • Participate in a team programming class to develop software of interest in a team environment.
  • Before you recycle your old laptop or desktop computer, Google how to take them apart and put them back together.
  • Ask people close to you to hook you up for a summer intern at a place you really love to work at. The experience is what you’re shooting for, but it will be great if you can talk to the administrators into covering your transportation and lunch money for the duration of your intern.
  • Be a contributing member of your school club, especially robotics, math or science clubs.
    Push yourself to the limit on a project for a science fair.

There is no better way to prepare yourself for careers of the future than to be well rounded. A balance of exercise or sporting activities combined with a rigorous art project, coding competition with friends in modern computer languages such as JavaScript, Python, Java, SQL, Ruby, C#, C++, PHP are highly recommended.



Are We Born With Knowledge?

by Will Lyon while at the Boston University Undergraduate Program in Neuroscience | One thing I have always struggled with in reading philosophy is the doctrine of Innatism, which holds that the human mind is born with ideas or knowledge. This belief, put forth most notably by Plato as his Theory of Forms and later by Descartes in his Meditations, is currently gaining neuroscientific evidence that could validate the belief that we are born with innate knowledge of our world (Left to right: Plato, Kant, Nietzsche, Buddha, Confucius, Averroes).

The predominant belief and assumption about human learning and memory is that we are born as a “blank slate,” and we gain our knowledge and ideas through new experiences and our memory of them. This belief is known as Empiricism and, although dates back to Aristotle, has been supported by many famous philosophers such as John Locke and Francis Bacon. However, a study published in last March’s Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences (PNAS) may, to an extent, discredit this main theory of knowledge collection. The research, conducted by the Blue Brain Group in Switzerland, explored the remarkable similarities in the neuronal circuitry in the neocortices of all brains. The study, summarized in this article in PNAS, essentially “discovered a synaptic organizing principle that groups neurons in a manner that is common across animals and hence, independent of individual experiences.” This discovery may have huge implications on our understanding of learning, memory, and development. The groups of neurons, or cell assemblies, appear consistently in the Neocortices of animals and are essentially cellular “building blocks”.

In many animals then, it may hold true that learning, perception, and memory are a result of putting these pieces together rather than forming new cell assemblies. According to Dr. Markram, “This could explain why we all share similar perceptions of physical reality, while our memories reflect our individual experience.” This is a remarkable example of the ways in which neuroscience and its research is revolutionizing our understanding of the ways in which we come to know and perceive our universe, while simultaneously answering major philosophical questions. While these findings may go against the incredibly popular empirical view of knowledge, they lend themselves very well to the notion of innate ideas. Plato and Descartes used this general theory to explain human reasoning. Plato believed that the human soul exists eternally, and exists in a “world of forms (or ideas)” before life; all learning is the process of remembering “shadows” of these forms here on Earth. While this idea is still a little out there for me at least (and it may take a little more scientific evidence to support that claim), Descartes’ claims seem very consistent with the Blue Brain Group’s findings.

Descartes proposed that the inborn ideas that we possess are those of geometric truths and all of our intelligence can be accessed through reason. Discussing ideas in his fifth meditation, he states “We come to know them by the power of our own native intelligence, without any sensory experience. All geometrical truths are of this sort — not just the most obvious ones, but all the others, however abstruse they may appear.” Another study supporting this notion is the result of research on “intuitive physics,” or the seeming understanding we possess of the physical behavior of objects in our universe without even thinking about it. In an article summarizing the study, Janese Silvey provides the example that “if a glass of milk falls off a table, a person will try to catch the cup but not the liquid spilling out. That person is reacting rather than consciously thinking about what to do.” The report on the actual experiment, by Susan Hespos and Kristy vanMarle, showed that infants possess expectations that, for example, objects still exist when they are hidden, and are surprised when these expectations are not met (surprise was indicated in the study by a longer looking time). Other experiments were conducted to demonstrate the understanding that infants from 2-5 months old have of cohesive properties, solidity of materials, and other basic physical characteristics of objects. The full report of the findings can be found here.

For me, the best news that comes out of this is that these new findings compromise both the philosophical doctrines of innatism and empiricism, opening up new discussions of exactly what knowledge and learning mean.

Markram’s Study on Synaptic Organization-PNAS

Physics for Infants-WIREs Cognitive Science

Descartes’ Theories of Innate Ideas-Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Plato’s Theory of Forms and Thoughts on Innate Ideas-Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Infants Understand More Than Thought-Columbia Daily Tribune

New Evidence for Innate Ideas-Blue Brain Group



How 5G will Enable the Future

One may expect 5G to be like a cloud of connectivity that follows you everywhere; for example, from your home to your autonomous vehicle which drives you through your “smart” city to your “smart” and “secure” office.
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is the next generation of super-fast and secure mobile telecommunications standards. 5G has speeds beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The 5G mobile telecommunications standard will usher a unifying connectivity fabric with huge enhancements to broadband experience everywhere and anytime. 5G will also allow us to seamlessly connect embedded sensors in virtually everything. The 5G concepts such as millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum will provide internet access to homes using wireless network technology rather than fixed lines. Other 5G use cases include the production of an ultra-high-fidelity media experience, and ultra-reliable/available low-latency links, such as remote control of critical infrastructure which are all slated to come out in 2020.

The spectrum allocations, Request for Proposal (RFP) and Request for Quotation (RFQ) process have already begun in the US. And the US appear to be leading in mmWave deployment. To prepare for a 5G world, 3GPP, the international wireless standards body, completed the 5G technical specifications that allows chip and hardware makers to start development.

Sanjay Jha, at the IEEE 5G Santa Clara World Forum this July, shows that one may expect 5G to be like a cloud of connectivity that follows you everywhere; for example, from your home to your autonomous vehicle which drives you through your “smart” city to your “smart” and “secure” office. There will be explosion of real-time acquisition and manipulation of images at every aspect of our lives in government, retail, healthcare, education, and entertainment. The explosion in mobile display resolution and real-time AI applications will make augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), mixed-reality (MR) (or hybrid reality), seamless; merging real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time.

At the next DC5G in Washington DC this November, one would expect to hear and see live demo of the disruptive World of 5G IoT-Powered VR, AR, and MR applications in booth after booth demonstrating how this super-fast connectivity would change how we connect online and make our life’s easier. All the wireless technology providers are positioning themselves for this massive mobile technological revolution. Some of them plan to roll out limited 5G networks in the Sacramento area, California, this year with peak speeds of up to 1 Gbps. Which is “a big deal” considering future 8K video streaming would require no more than 100 Mbps. What will make 5G unique will not just be the super-fast speed but also the ability to securely connect a whole lot of devices without wires. Which means most home users may have no need for wired internet services since wireless providers speed will rival wired connections.



Understanding Quantum Computing

One suggested approach to the stability-decoherence problem is to create a topological quantum computer with anyons, quasi-particles used as threads and relying on braid theory to form stable logic gates (images: Wikipedia).
Quantum computing although still in its infancy is quantum bits that uses a very different form of data handling to perform calculations. In short, it’s a quantum-mechanical phenomena computing. The emergence of quantum computing is based on a new kind of data unit that is non-binary, as it has more than two definite states (0 or 1). Quantum computation uses quantum bits or qubits that can be in superpositions and entanglements states.

Unlike classical computer that works on bits of data that are binary, quantum computer, maintains a sequence of qubits, which can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states. A pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three qubits in any superposition of 8 states. According to scientists, qubits are based on physical atoms and molecular structures. However, many find it helpful to theorize a qubit as a binary data unit with superposition.

To bring to light the importance of quantum computing, many national governments and military agencies are funding quantum computing research on top of effort to develop quantum computers for civilian, business, trade, environmental and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis. John Preskill introduced the term quantum supremacy to refer to the hypothetical speedup advantage that a quantum computer would have over a classical computer in a certain field. Roger Schlafly pointed out that the claimed theoretical benefits of quantum computing go beyond the proven theory of quantum mechanics and imply non-standard interpretations, such as multiple worlds and negative probabilities. Schlafly on the other hand maintains that the Born rule is just “metaphysical fluff” and that quantum mechanics doesn’t rely on probability any more than other branches of science but simply calculates the expected observation values.

One of the greatest challenges of quantum computing is controlling or removing quantum decoherence; that is, loss of quantum coherence or means of isolating the system from its environment as interactions with the external world causes the system to decohere. Right now, some quantum computers require their qubits to be cooled to 20 millikelvins in order to prevent significant decoherence.  Meaning time consuming tasks may render some quantum algorithms inoperable, as maintaining the state of qubits for a long enough duration will eventually corrupt the superpositions.

One suggested approach to the stability-decoherence problem is to create a topological quantum computer with anyons, quasi-particles used as threads and relying on braid theory to form stable logic gates. Here are four of several quantum computing models in development:

In February 2018, scientists reported, for the first time, the discovery of a new form of light, which may involve polaritons, that could be useful in the development of quantum computers. while in March 2018, Google Quantum AI Lab announced a 72 qubit processor called Bristlecone. IBM Research announced eight quantum computing startups joined the IBM Q Network, including: Zapata Computing, Strangeworks, QxBranch, Quantum Benchmark, QC Ware, Q-CTRL, Cambridge Quantum Computing, and 1QBit in April 2018.

Quantum computers are really good at solving those problems where you’ve got an exponential number of permutations to try out, said Stanford Clark. However, quantum computers will never be able to run the type of logic that we’re familiar with in the classical computer architecture, said Andy Stanford Clark. Although, quantum computers may be faster than classical computers for some problem types, A Turing machine can simulate these quantum computers, so such a quantum computer could never solve an undecidable problem like the halting problem.