by

United Nations

Although wars are still around, with the formation of the United Nations, wars are no longer a serious threat to most members of the United Nations. Diplomacy rules and most civilized nations no longer sees violence or war as a useful way of solving international disputes. In the late 18th century, countries was divided between rich and poor nations. Poor and weak nations were simply no match for modern warfare, as the Zulu learned to their sorrow in the early 19th century, and Saddam Hussein in 1991. Poor nations therefore stopped using warfare as a strategic tool, shifting to guerilla warfare or terrorism. Even among the rich nations, war is too expensive to fight. In the nuclear age, war between the major world powers became completely unthinkable. The success of the West solving problems through diplomacy although “shaking” during the 2020 presidential election proves to the rest of the world that we are not destined to live with war. Hence, a new form of war between the rich and the poor nations and between the developed and under-developed countries.

The independence of nations is synonymous with the industrial revolution and the enlightenment; from the transformation of warfare to the rise of democratic peace. An independence day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary of a nation’s independence. Here is the list of nations that have established their country’s independence or sovereignty from a foreign power or have never been colonized, for example, Australia that selected January 26 to commemorates arrival of the First Fleet of British ships and is not an independence day.

 

Country Name of holiday Date of holiday Year of event Independence from Event commemorated and notes
Afghanistan Afghan Independence Day (Afghan Victory Day) August 19 1919 United Kingdom Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 or Treaty of Rawalpindi, an armistice between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan during the Third Anglo-Afghan War
Albania Flag Day (Dita e Flamurit) November 28 1912 Ottoman Empire Albanian Declaration of Independence. The following day, November 29, is celebrated as the Liberation Day and commemorates the end of the German occupation in 1944.
Algeria Independence Day July 5 1962 France Algeria gained independence following the Algerian War and the Algerian independence referendum. France officially recognized independent Algeria on July 3, but the Independence Day is celebrated on July 5, the day of the fall of Algiers in 1830 and the beginning of French Algeria.
Andorra None
Angola Independence Day November 11 1975 Portugal The Alvor Agreement, signed on 15 January 1975, granted Angola independence from Portugal on 11 November, ending the Angolan War of Independence.
Antigua and Barbuda Independence Day November 1 1981 United Kingdom The effective date of the Antigua Termination of Association Order passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in July
Argentina Independence Day July 9 1816 Spanish Empire Argentine Declaration of Independence
Armenia Republic Day May 28 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Declaration of Independence of Armenia (1918)
Independence Day September 21 1991 Soviet Union 1991 Armenian independence referendum
Australia None Australia Day (January 26) commemorates arrival of the First Fleet of British ships and is not an independence day.
Austria National Day October 26 1955 Allied occupying powers (France, United Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union) Declaration of Neutrality
Azerbaijan Republic Day May 28 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Declaration of Independence (Azerbaijan)
Independence Day October 18 1991 Soviet Union Adoption of the constitutional act “On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”
Bahamas, The Independence Day July 10 1973 United Kingdom Effective date of The Bahamas Independence Order 1973
Bahrain Independence Day December 16 1971 United Kingdom Ascension of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa to the throne
Bangladesh Independence Day March 26 1971 Pakistan Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence
Barbados Independence Day November 30 1966 United Kingdom Effective date of the Barbados Independence Act 1966
Belarus Independence Day July 3 1944 Nazi Germany The liberation of Minsk after several years of German occupation in 1944. Two other independence days – March 25 (proclamation of the Belarusian People’s Republic in 1918) and July 27 (independence from the Soviet Union in 1990) – are commemorated unofficially.
Belgium National Day July 21 1831 United Netherlands Ascension of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to the throne
Belize Independence Day September 21 1981 United Kingdom Effective day of the Belize Act 1981
Benin Independence Day August 1 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 11 creating the independent Republic of Dahomey
Bhutan None
Bolivia Independence Day August 6 1825 Spain Bolivian Declaration of Independence
Bosnia and Herzegovina Independence Day March 1 1992 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1992 Bosnian independence referendum
Botswana Independence Day September 30 1966 United Kingdom Effective date of the Botswana Independence Act 1966
Brazil Independence Day (Dia da Independência) September 7 1822 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Declaration of independence by Pedro I of Brazil (see Independence of Brazil)
Brunei National Day February 23 1984 United Kingdom Brunei gained full independence effective January 1, 1984 under the Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation of 7 January 1979 between United Kingdom and Brunei. However, the celebrations of the first National Day were delayed until February 23 and that day continues to be celebrated since.
Bulgaria Liberation Day March 3 1878 Ottoman Empire Treaty of San Stefano which created the autonomous Principality of Bulgaria
Independence Day October 5 1908 Ottoman Empire Bulgarian Declaration of Independence
Burkina Faso Proclamation of Independence Day December 11 1958 France Effective date when French Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Independence Day August 5 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 11 and creation of the independent Republic of Upper Volta
Burundi Independence Day July 1 1962 Belgium Effective date of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1746 terminating the Ruanda-Urundi Trusteeship
Cambodia Independence Day November 9 1953 France Ceremony transferring military from French to Cambodian officials based on a military hand-over agreement reached on October 17, 1953
Cameroon None Cameroon gained independence on January 1, 1960, but does not celebrate that date. Instead, it celebrates the National Day on May 20 commemorating the 1972 Cameroonian constitutional referendum.
Canada None Canada Day on July 1 commemorates the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867.
Cape Verde Independence Day July 5 1975 Portugal Effective date of the Agreement Between Portugal and Partido Africano para a Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) signed on December 18, 1974
Central African Republic National Day December 1 1958 France Effective date when Central African Republic became an autonomous republic of the French Community
Independence Day August 13 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 12
Chad Republic Day November 28 1958 France Effective date when Chad became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Independence Day August 11 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 12
Chile Independence Day (part of Fiestas Patrias) September 18 1810 Spanish Empire Establishment of the Government Junta of Chile. The following day, September 19, is celebrated as the Army Day. The two holidays collectively are known as Fiestas Patrias.
China None National Day commemorates the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949.
Colombia Independence Day July 20 1810 Spanish Empire Colombian Declaration of Independence
Comoros Independence Day July 6 1975 France Unilateral declaration of independence by the Chamber of Deputies of Comoros following the 1974 Comorian independence referendum
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Independence Day June 30 1960 Belgium Effective date of the Treaty of Friendship, Assistance and Co-operation between Belgium and the Congo concluded on June 29, 1960
Congo, Republic of the Republic Day November 28 1958 France Effective date when Congo became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Independence Day August 15 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 12.
Costa Rica Independence Day September 15 1821 Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America[citation needed]
Croatia Statehood Day May 30 1990 SFR Yugoslavia First session of the Croatian Parliament following the 1990 Croatian parliamentary election. October 8 (when the parliament adopted a decision to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia in 1991) and June 25 (when the parliament voted for independence in 1991) were also celebrated as independence days. After the 2019 changes to the law on public holidays, October 8 is the Parliament Day and June 25 is the Independence Day, but they are memorial days and not public holidays.
Cuba Commencement of the Wars of Independence October 10 1868 Spanish Empire Call to rebellion (known as Grito de Yara) by sugar planter Carlos Manuel de Cespedes that led to the Ten Years’ War for independence
Cyprus National Day April 1 1955 United Kingdom 1 April attacks that started the Cyprus Emergency
Independence Day October 1 1960 United Kingdom Effective date of the London-Zürich Agreements was August 16, 1960, but the public holiday was moved to October 1 to avoid summer heat and tourist season.
Czech Republic Independence Day October 28 1918 Austria-Hungary Independence declaration by the Czechoslovak National Council
Restoration Day January 1 1993 Czechoslovakia Effective date of the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia
Denmark None
Djibouti Independence Day June 27 1977 France
Dominica Independence Day November 3 1978 United Kingdom
Dominican Republic February 27 1821 and 1844 Independence from Spain in December 1821.
Independence re-declared from Haiti in 1844, after a 22-year occupation.
East Timor May 20 2002 Portugal East Timor was invaded by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, officially it never ceased to be considered as administrated by Portugal.
Ecuador Independence Day August 10 1809 Spanish Empire Proclaimed independence on August 10, 1809, but failed with the execution of all the conspirators of the movement on August 2, 1810.
May 24 1822 Spanish Empire Battle of Pichincha
Egypt None Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued on February 28, 1922, but Egypt does not celebrate this date.
El Salvador Independence Day September 15 1821 Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America[citation needed]
Equatorial Guinea October 12 1968 Spain
Eritrea Independence Day May 24 1991 Ethiopia
Estonia Independence Day February 24 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Estonian Declaration of Independence
Day of Restoration of Independence August 20 1991 Soviet Union Estonian Restoration of Independence
Eswatini Somhlolo Day September 6 1968 United Kingdom Named for Ngwane IV, Somhlolo, who reined from 1815 to 1836 and created a kingdom comparable to the Zulu, the Maroti, or the Pedi.
Ethiopia None
Fiji Fiji Day October 10 1970 United Kingdom Instruments of Independence
Finland Independence Day December 6 1917 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Finnish Declaration of Independence
France None
Gabon August 17 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 15.
Gambia, The February 18 1965 United Kingdom Effective date of the Gambia Independence Act 1964
Georgia Independence Day May 26 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Day of the proclamation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918.
Day of National Unity April 9 1991 Soviet Union
Germany None
Ghana Independence Day March 6 1957 United Kingdom
Greece March 25 1821 Ottoman Empire Declaration of independence 1821. Start of the Greek War of Independence.
Grenada Independence Day February 7 1974 United Kingdom
Guatemala Independence Day September 15 1821 Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America[citation needed]
Guinea October 2 1958 France
Guinea-Bissau Independence Day September 24 1973 Portugal Declaration of independence during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
Guyana May 26 1966 United Kingdom
Haiti Independence Day January 1 1804 France Haitian Declaration of Independence
Honduras Independence Day September 15 1821 Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America[citation needed]
Hungary October 23 1989 Opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, and establishment as a democratic parliamentary republic.
Iceland Independence Day June 17 1944 Denmark Effective date of the dissolution of the Danish–Icelandic Act of Union following the 1944 Icelandic constitutional referendum
India Independence Day August 15 1947 United Kingdom Effective date of the Indian Independence Act 1947
Indonesia Independence Day (Hari Kemerdekaan) August 17 1945 Netherlands and Japan Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
Iran April 1 1979 After holding a referendum, Iran officially became an Islamic republic in April 1979.
Iraq October 3 1932 United Kingdom
Ireland April 24 1916 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic commencing the Easter Rising. Usually celebrated on Easter Monday.
Israel Yom Ha’atzmaut Iyar 5 (On or between Apr 15 and May 15, depending on the Hebrew calendar). 1948 United Kingdom and the British Mandate for Palestine Israeli Declaration of Independence on May 14, 1948 (5 Iyar 5708 in the Hebrew calendar). Yom Ha’atzmaut is celebrated on the Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday nearest to 5 Iyar, so it occurs between 3 and 6 Iyar each year; this means that the holiday can fall any time between and including April 15 and May 15, according to the Gregorian calendar.
Italy None
Ivory Coast August 7 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 11.
Jamaica August 6 1962 United Kingdom Independence of Jamaica
Japan None
Jordan Independence Day May 25 1946 United Kingdom Ascension of Abdullah I of Jordan to the throne
Kazakhstan Independence Day December 16 1991 Soviet Union
Kenya Jamhuri Day December 12 1963 United Kingdom
Kiribati July 12 1979 United Kingdom
North Korea Chogukhaebangŭi nal August 15 1945 Empire of Japan Founding of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in 1948. Korean War 1950–1953.
South Korea Samiljeol March 1 1919 Empire of Japan Korean Declaration of Independence in 1919. This day is celebrated as Samiljeol, or Independence Proclamation Day.
Gwangbokjeol August 15 1945 Empire of Japan Liberation from the Empire of Japan in 1945. See Japanese Occupation of Korea. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919. Korean War 1950–1953.
Kuwait February 25 1961 United Kingdom
Kyrgyzstan Independence Day August 31 1991 Soviet Union
Laos None Laos gained autonomy from France on 19 July 1949 and full independence on 22 October 1953, but those days are not celebrated as public holidays in Laos. The National Day on December 2 commemorates the establishment of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975.
Latvia Proclamation Day of the Republic of Latvia November 18 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and German Empire Proclamation of independence on November 18, 1918. Latvia was part of Russian Empire prior to World War I, but its territory had been ceded to German Empire in March 1918
May 4 1990 Soviet Union On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia
Lebanon Independence Day November 22 1943 France
Lesotho October 4 1966 United Kingdom
Liberia Independence Day July 26 1847 American Colonization Society Liberian Declaration of Independence
Libya December 24 1951 Italy Independence from Italy on February 10, 1947, released from British and French on December 24, 1951.
Liechtenstein None
Lithuania Statehood Restoration Day February 16 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and German Empire Act of Independence of Lithuania
Independence Restoration Day March 11 1990 Soviet Union Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania
Luxembourg None
Madagascar June 26 1960 France
Malawi July 6 1964 United Kingdom
Malaysia Hari Merdeka August 31 1957 United Kingdom Malayan Declaration of Independence
Maldives July 26 1965 United Kingdom
Mali September 22 1960 France
Malta Independence Day September 21 1964 United Kingdom
Marshall Islands None
Mauritania November 28 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on October 19.
Mauritius March 12 1968 United Kingdom
Mexico Grito de Dolores
Día de la Independéncia
September 15
September 16
1810 Spanish Empire Start of the Mexican War of Independence
Micronesia Independence Day November 3 1986 United States Effective date of the Compact of Free Association
Moldova Independence Day August 27 1991 Soviet Union Moldovan Declaration of Independence
Monaco None
Mongolia Independence Day December 29 1911 Great Qing Independence declared in 1911. However, the newly established Mongolian government was too weak to resist the occupation of the Republic of China in 1919 and later White Russia in early 1921. After ousting Roman von Ungern-Sternberg’s forces, the new communist government was officially established on June 11, 1921.
Montenegro May 21 2006 Serbia and Montenegro 2006 Montenegrin independence referendum
Morocco Proclamation of Independence Day January 11 1944 France and Spain
Independence Day November 18 1955 France and Spain Return of Mohammed V of Morocco from exile
Mozambique Independence Day
Dia da Independência Nacional
June 25 1975 Portugal In September 1964 the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) began an armed guerilla campaign against the Portuguese. FRELIMO took control of Maputo in April 1974 in a coup. Independence for Mozambique was officially declared a year later on June 25, 1975.
Myanmar Independence Day January 4 1948 United Kingdom Burmese Declaration of Independence
Namibia March 21 1990 South Africa
Nauru January 31 1968 Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom
Nepal None
Netherlands, The July 26 1581 Spanish Empire Declaration of Independence in 1581 as the Dutch Republic
New Zealand None
Nicaragua Independence Day September 15 1821 Spanish Empire Act of Independence of Central America[citation needed]
Niger Independence Day August 3 1960 France Effective date of the agreement with France signed on July 11.
Nigeria Independence Day October 1 1960 United Kingdom
North Macedonia Independence Day (Den na nezavisnosta) September 8 1991 SFR Yugoslavia
Norway Constitution Day May 17 1814 Denmark National Day: Independence and the Constitution of Norway (May 17, 1814)
Independence Day June 7 1905 Sweden Union Dissolution and Independence Day (June 7, 1905)
Oman National Day November 18 1650 Portugal
Pakistan Independence Day (Youm-e-Azadi) August 14 1947 United Kingdom Effective date of the Indian Independence Act 1947; see also: Pakistan Day (March 23)
Palau None
Palestine National Day November 15 1988 Israel Palestinian Declaration of Independence
Panama November 28 1821 Spain Independence Act of Panama
November 3 1903 Colombia Panama was member of the “Gran Colombia” until 1903. The 1903 separation from Colombia is celebrated as an official holiday day on November 3.
Papua New Guinea September 16 1975 Australia of the former Territory of Papua and New Guinea
Paraguay Independence Day May 14 and May 15 1811 Spanish Empire
Peru Fiestas Patrias July 28 1821 Spanish Empire
Philippines Independence Day (Araw ng Kalayaan or Araw ng Kasarinlan) June 12 1898 Spanish Empire Philippine Declaration of Independence by Emilio Aguinaldo during the Philippine Revolution against Spain. The Philippines achieved self-rule from the United States on July 4, 1946, and celebrated July 4 as Independence Day until 1964.
Poland Independence Day (Święto Niepodległości) November 11 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and German Empire Restoration of Poland’s independence in 1918 after 123 years of partitions by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Portugal Restoration of Independence Day December 1 1640 Spanish Empire Portugal was officially an autonomous state, but the country was in a personal union with the Spanish crown from 1580 to 1640 – date of the restoration of full Portuguese autonomy from Iberian Union with Spain.
Qatar National Day December 18 1878 Ottoman Empire
Independence from Britain December 18 1971 United Kingdom The former is celebrated more often
Romania May 9 1877 Ottoman Empire Romania’s declaration of its independence, while the ultimately victorious independence war against the Ottoman Empire in 1877–1878 alongside Russia, was just beginning.
Russia None
Rwanda Independence Day July 1 1962 Belgium Effective date of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1746 terminating the Ruanda-Urundi Trusteeship
Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day September 19 1983 United Kingdom
Saint Lucia Independence Day February 22 1979 United Kingdom
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Independence Day October 27 1979 United Kingdom
Samoa June 1 1962 New Zealand
San Marino None
São Tomé and Príncipe Independence Day July 12 1975 Portugal Effective date of the agreement with Portugal reached on November 26, 1974
Saudi Arabia National Day September 23 1932 King Abdulaziz renames the Arabian Peninsula after himself “House of Saud” or “Saud’s Arabia”. King Abdullah officially recognized it in 2005 by royal decree.
Senegal Independence Day April 4 1960 France
Serbia Statehood Day February 15 1804 and 1835 Ottoman Empire The beginning of First Serbian Uprising in 1804, it evolved into a Serbian Revolution, war for independence from Ottoman Empire; and the adoption of the first Constitution in 1835.
Seychelles June 29 1976 United Kingdom
Sierra Leone Independence Day April 27 1961 United Kingdom
Singapore National Day August 9 1965 Malaysia Proclamation of Singapore
Slovakia July 17 1992 Declaration of Independence in 1992 (only a remembrance day), de jure independence came on January 1, 1993 after the division of Czechoslovakia (public holiday).
Slovenia Independence and Unity Day December 26 and June 25 1991 SFR Yugoslavia Date of the release of the official results of the independence plebiscite in 1990, confirming secession from Yugoslavia. (Statehood Day) Declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.
Solomon Islands Independence Day July 7 1978 United Kingdom
Somalia Independence Day July 1 1960 Italy and United Kingdom Union of the Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and British Somaliland to form the Somali Republic. Event commemorated annually.
South Africa Not a holiday December 11 1931 United Kingdom Independence in 1931 in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926 which is not a public holiday. The Union of South Africa formed on May 31, 1910 and the Republic of South Africa declared on May 31, 1961 under minority rule during Apartheid. Majority rule achieved on April 27, 1994, which is celebrated annually as the Freedom Day.
South Sudan Independence Day July 9 2011 Sudan
Spain None
Sri Lanka Independence Day February 4 1948 United Kingdom
Sudan Independence Day January 1 1956 Egypt and the United Kingdom
Suriname Independence Day November 25 1975 Netherlands
Sweden National Day June 6 1523 Celebrates the election of King Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the new constitutions in 1809 and 1974. The election of King Gustav Vasa was the de facto end of the Kalmar Union and has been seen as a formal declaration of independence.
Switzerland Swiss National Day August 1 1291 Alliance against the Holy Roman Empire in 1291.
Syria Evacuation Day April 17 1946 France End of the French Mandate of Syria in 1946.
Tajikistan Independence Day September 9 1991 Soviet Union
Tanzania December 9 1961 United Kingdom Independence as Tanganyika
Togo April 27 1960 France
Tonga June 4 1970 United Kingdom Termination of protectorate status in 1970
Trinidad and Tobago Independence Day August 31 1962 United Kingdom Effective date of the Trinidad and Tobago Independence Act 1962
Tunisia Independence Day March 20 1956 France
Turkey None Republic Day (October 29) and National Sovereignty and Children’s Day (April 23) celebrate the founding of the Republic of Turkey, but are not independence days.
Turkmenistan Independence Day September 27 1991 Soviet Union
Tuvalu Independence Day October 1 1978 United Kingdom
Uganda Independence Day October 9 1962 United Kingdom
Ukraine Independence Day August 24 1991 Soviet Union Declaration of Independence of Ukraine
Day of Unity January 22 1919 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Unification of Ukraine on January 22, 1919.
United Arab Emirates National Day December 2 1971 United Kingdom
United States Independence Day or Fourth of July July 4 1776 Kingdom of Great Britain United States Declaration of Independence
Uruguay Independence Day August 25 1825 United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata Declaration of independence and union with the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata.
Uzbekistan Independence Day September 1 1991 Soviet Union
Vanuatu Independence Day July 30 1980 United Kingdom and France
Vatican City None
Venezuela Independence Day July 5 1811 Spanish Empire Venezuelan Declaration of Independence
Vietnam Independence Day September 2 1945 Empire of Japan and French Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Yemen November 30 1967 United Kingdom Declaration of independence as South Yemen
Zambia Independence Day October 24 1964 United Kingdom Effective date of the Zambia Independence Act 1964
Zimbabwe Independence Day April 18 1980 United Kingdom Effective date of the Lancaster House Agreement

 

Author:
ECWA Editorial Board: Our editorial board or advisory board consists of a group of well published, prominent professors, with academic credentials and a detailed knowledge of their subject area.

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